Q 1: The Prophet (peace be upon him) answered Jibril (Gabriel, peace be upon him) when he asked about Iman (Faith) stating,
"Iman is to believe in Allah... And to believe in Predestination, whether it is good or bad."
It is also reported in the Two Sahih (authentic) Books of Hadith (i.e. Al-Bukhari and Muslim) that the Prophet (peace be upon him) stated,
"Adam and Musa (peace be upon them) argued one another (in another narration 'There was an argument between Adam and Musa'). Musa said, 'O Adam! You are our father. You disappointed us and turned us out of Paradise.' Adam said to him: 'You are Musa. Allah favored you with His Speech (by talking directly to you) and wrote the Tawrah (Torah) for you with His own Hand. Do you blame me for something which Allah had ordained for me forty years before creating me?' This is how Adam confuted Musa, this is how Adam confuted Musa, this is how Adam confuted Musa."
In another narration by Imam
he (peace be upon him) stated, "Adam confuted him."How can we reconcile between,
"...And to believe in Predestination, whether it is good or bad,"
"You are our father. You disappointed us and turned us out of Paradise"
and Adam mentioning Predestination when he said,
"Do you blame me for something which Allah had ordained for me forty years before creating me?"
?The apparent meaning of the Hadith shows Musa's disbelief in Allah's Predestination and this is impossible. Please clarify the matter, and may Allah bless you.
Musa (peace be upon him) blamed Adam (peace be upon him) for the affliction that befell him and his offspring; which is driving them out of Paradise due to his sin. Musa did not blame Adam for committing the sin because Adam had performed Tawbah (repentance to Allah) and anyone who performs Tawbah is as pure as one who has not committed a sin. So, Adam referred this affliction to Allah's Predestination which had taken place prior to the affliction.
Referring to Predestination as the reason for afflictions is permissible to (Part No. 2; Page No. 510) prevent people from showing impatience and discontent. Allah (Exalted be He) states:
No calamity befalls on the earth or in yourselves but it is inscribed in the Book of Decrees (Al-Lauh Al-Mahfûz) before We bring it into existence. Verily, that is easy for Allâh.
In order that you may not grieve at the things that you fail to get, nor rejoice over that which has been given to you.
Allah also states:
No calamity befalls, but by the Leave [i.e. Decision and Qadar (Divine Preordainments)] of Allâh, and whosoever believes in Allâh, He guides his heart [to the true Faith with certainty, i.e. what has befallen him was already written for him by Allâh from the Qadar (Divine Preordainments)].
`Alqamah said, "It refers to a Muslim who knows that the affliction that has befallen them is from Allah. So, they are content and they submit themselves to Allah." The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated,
"Cherish that which benefits you (in the Hereafter), seek help from Allah, do not lose heart, and if anything afflicts you, do not say, 'If only I had done that it would have been this or that,' but say, 'Allah did that which He had ordained', because saying 'if' opens the (gate) for Satan’s work."
Muslim in his "Sahih" book of authentic Hadith).May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.