(Part No. 2; Page No. 501)
Believing in the Divine Decree and Predestination
Praise be to Allah, Alone. Peace and blessings be upon the Last Prophet.The Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta' has read the query submitted to His Eminence the Grand Mufty by His Excellency Secretary General of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry
and referred to the Committee by the Secretariat General of the Council of Senior Scholars. The query number is 1139 and dated 9/3/1411 A.H. The questioner asked the following question:The Chamber of Commerce and Industry in the Kingdom plays a constructive role and exerts efforts in settling many commercial issues and problems through reconciling between the disputing parties without resorting to the judicial authorities. The Chamber undertakes this task based on the great principle of the Shari`ah, namely, 'reconciliation is best,' and for the purpose of sparing the judiciary some of the large number of issues submitted to them. The Chamber also seeks to maintain the trade relations among national businessmen or among them and other businessmen abroad based on friendliness and mutual consent.Accidents sometimes cause financial losses or psychological harm to others. These incidents might take place (Part No. 2; Page No. 502) deliberately or out of negligence. They may be done due to unknown reasons or due to reasons that man has no connection to or cannot expect, such as the foundering of a ship, the breaking out of fire in a storehouse of gas cylinders and storms, or heavy rains that damage the goods.When similar accidents are referred to the Chamber or some authorities seeking their consultation, the reports made contain a phrase signifying that the accident took place according to the Divine Decree and Predestination. They write it considering that
the Divine Will is above everything.
We would like, Your Eminence, to give us a clear answer to be a Shar`y evidence on writing the phrase stating that the accident happened according to the Divine Decree and Predestination, particularly that some people contested it. Should this phrase be used only with matters that man has no control over? Can it be used with all cases along with mentioning the apparent reason afterwards?We appreciate your Eminence's enthusiasm for the cause of Islam and ask Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) to reward you with the best.As-salamu `alaykum warahmatullah wabarakatuh (May Allah's Peace, Mercy, and Blessings be upon you!)
After the Committee studied the query, it gave the following answer:Everything happens according to the Divine Decree and Predestination, as Allah (Glorified be He) says,
Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainments of all things before their creation as written in the Book of Decrees Al-Lauh Al-Mahfûz).
(Part No. 2; Page No. 503) Also, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said,
Every thing is decreed, even incapability and ability.
Muslim in his Sahih (authentic) Book of Hadith). Thus, there will be no blame if the reports contain a phrase signifying that a particular accident happened according to the Divine Decree and Predestination along with clarifying the direct reason, be it a human reason or any other reason.May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings of Allah be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family and Companions.