Q 1: What is the ruling on
non-Muslim children who die in childhood?
Will they be admitted to Paradise or Hellfire?
The non-Muslim children in this world fall under the same ruling as their fathers; but as for the Hereafter, the correct scholarly opinions in this regard are two:The first is that they will be put through the test of whether or not they will accept Islam. They will be called to embrace Islam; whoever accepts will be saved and admitted to Paradise, whereas those who refuse will dwell in Hellfire.The second is that they will enter Paradise. It is related by
Al-Bukhari in his Sahih on the authority of
Samurah ibn Jundub that the Prophet (peace be upon him) saw them in a dream with Ibrahim (Abraham, peace be upon him) in a garden with the Muslim children.
This is also because they died without committing any sins or being converted to Judaism, Christianity or Magianism. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:
Every newborn is born in a state of Fitrah - (according to another narration: born into no other than this religion). Its parents then make it a Jew, a Christian or a Magian.
(Agreed upon by Al-Bukhari and Muslim). The knowledgeable scholar
Ibn Al-Qayyim (may Allah be merciful to him) elaborated on this issue in the last part of Tariq Al-Hijratayn wa Bab Al-Sa`adatayn. For further information, please refer to this book. (Part No. 2; Page No. 494) May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family and Companions.