Reciting the Qur'an for the deceased beside his grave
(Part No. 9; Page No. 39)
It was authentically reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to visit the graves and supplicate to Allah using certain supplications that he taught his Companions. One of these supplications is:
"Peace be upon you all, inhabitants of the graves from among the believers and the Muslims. Verily we will, Allah willing, (surely) follow you. We ask Allah to give us and you the good."
It was not authentically reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) recited any Surah or Ayahs (verses) of the Qur'an upon visiting the graves though he used to visit the graves often. Had it been permissible to do so, the Prophet (peace be upon him) would have done it and pointed it out to his Companions out of mercy for the Ummah (nation), seeking reward and conveying the message. Allah described his Prophet by his saying:
Verily, there has come unto you a Messenger (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) from amongst yourselves (i.e. whom you know well). It grieves him that you should receive any injury or difficulty. He (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) is anxious over you (to be rightly guided, to repent to Allâh, and beg Him to pardon and forgive your sins in order that you may enter Paradise and be saved from the punishment of the Hell-fire); for the believers (he صلى الله عليه وسلم is) full of pity, kind, and merciful.
As long as the Prophet (peace be upon him) did not do that though there is a cause for it, it denotes the impermissibility of this thing. The Companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) discerned this end and therefore followed the example of the Prophet (peace be upon him). They were content with only drawing lessons from and performing Du`a' (supplication) for the dead upon visiting the graves. It was not authentically reported that they recited Qur'an for the sake of the dead. Therefore, reciting Qur'an for the dead is a Bid`ah (innovation in religion). The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:
Anyone who introduces anything into this matter of ours (Islam) that is not part of it will have it rejected.
Agreed upon by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.