Dedicating the reward of good deeds to a deceased person is confined to a certain time
Q: I read a book called Al-Mukhtar Wa Matali` Al-Anwar. The author of this book said that the Prophet
(peace be upon him) said:
“No night will come harder to the dead person than the first night, so show mercy to your dead by offering Sadaqah (voluntary charity) and whoever cannot afford it, let him offer a two-Rak`ahs Prayer, in which he should recite Al-Fatihah, Ayat-ul-Kursy (the Qur’anic Verse of Allah’s Chair, Surah Al-Baqarah, 2:255), Surah Al-Takathur, and Surah Al-Ikhlas eleven times, and then say: ‘O Allah! I have offered this prayer and You know what I want. O Allah send its reward to the grave of so-and-so.’ Allah forthwith will send to his grave a thousand angels, with each angel light and guidance, and they will keep company with him in his grave until the Trumpet is blown. Allah will then give the person who performed this Salah (prayer) as much good deeds as whatever the sun has shined on, and raise him forty degrees, give him the reward of forty journeys of Hajj and `Umrah, build for him a thousand cities in Paradise and give him the reward of a thousand martyrs. Moreover, this person will be clothed with a thousand garments.”
He added: "This is a great reward and benefit. Every Muslim should perform this Salah every night and grant its reward to the dead Muslim persons..."
Is it permissible and authentically reported to offer Sadaqah (voluntary charity) and Salah according to the manner mentioned above? Is the Hadith mentioned in this book an authentic one? Who is the author of the book called Al-Mukhtar Wa Matali` Al-Anwar? What is the ruling on those who work according to what is mentioned in this book?
(Part No. 9; Page No. 61)
There is no doubt that the Hadith mentioned in this question is one of the fabricated Hadiths ascribed to the Prophet (peace be upon him). There is also no doubt that Sadaqah or Salah performed according to the manner mentioned above in the fabricated Hadith has no basis. A Muslim is not permitted to perform it on the first night when the dead person is put in the grave or on any other nights. But a person is permitted to offer Sadaqah for the sake of a dead person at any time he wills whether he is one of his relatives or not. It was authentically reported:
"A man said: 'O Messenger of Allah! My mother died suddenly without having made any will. I think she would have definitely given Sadaqah if she had been able to speak. Would she have a reward if I give Sadaqah on her behalf?' He (peace be upon him) said: 'Yes.'"
He did not single out the first night after burial or any other night in any way. Scholars from Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah (adherents to the Sunnah and the Muslim mainstream) have unanimously agreed that the dead Muslim benefits from Sadaqah and Du`a' performed for his sake. As for the author of the book called Al-Mukhtar Wa Matali` Al-Anwar, we do not know anything about him or his book. But what you have quoted of his book denotes that he is not one of the reliable scholars. We ask Allah to guide us, you and all Muslims to useful knowledge and righteous deeds.May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.