Q 3: What is
the correct description of the Prayer of a traveler?
What should a traveler, who did not offer Zhuhr (noon) Prayer, do when he finds the congregational praying the `Asr (afternoon) Prayer?
The prayer of a traveler is the same as that of a resident, except for that the traveler is allowed to shorten the four-Rak`ah Prayer to a two-Rak`ah one. Furthermore, he is allowed to combine two Prayers and perform them at the time of either one, if necessary during his journey. As for the traveler who did not offer Zhuhr Prayer and finds the congregational `Asr Prayer, he, according to the preponderant view, must join the Imam with the intention of offering Zhuhr Prayer. There is no harm regarding the diversity of types of Salah you both offer. (Part No. 6; Page No. 445) When he finishes Zhuhr Prayer, he may offer `Asr in congregation if possible; otherwise, he may offer it individually.
is it impermissible for a traveler to shorten Salah if he is only one person?
If yes, please provide evidence.
A traveler, alone or in a group, is allowed to avail himself of the traveling Rukhsahs (concessions) because of the general meaning of the evidence regarding this. However, if he finds a group of residents, he may join them in the congregational Salah and offer it in full. He may not offer Salah individually in this case.May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.