How should airplane passengers offer Salah (Prayer) while on board
and on landing at an airport when passengers are banned from leaving the plane? Is it permissible to offer Salah while sitting in the chair in such circumstances and at such times?
Anyone who embarks on traveling by air has to offer the currently due Salah non-shortened before going on board, unless the airport is outside the borders of the country, in which case it will be unobjectionable to shorten Salah. (Part No. 6; Page No. 457) If the second Salah becomes due whose time will not elapse before the flight ends, one should offer it after landing, even if it is during the last portion of its prescribed time. If the flight ends after the elapse of the time of Salah, one should offer it on board according to their ability. To clarify, if the passenger can stand, bow, and prostrate themselves on the airplane’s ground, they have to do so. Otherwise, they should offer it while sitting on the chair and move their heads downwards to signal Ruku‘ (bowing) and Sujud (prostration). They have to face the Qiblah (Ka‘bah-direction faced for Prayer), if this is possible.However, if the passenger will continue traveling, and the first Salah becomes due before going on board, they should combine the two Salahs at the time of the earlier one. Moreover, if the first Salah becomes due while on board, and the passenger knows that the airplane will land before the elapse of the time of the second Salah, they should delay the first Salah and combine it with the second Salah at the time of the later one. If the passenger knows that the flight will continue until after the elapse of the time of the second Salah, they should combine the two Salahs while on board at the time of any of them, whichever is easier, while shortening the Salah consisting of four Rak‘ahs (units of Prayer) to two Rak‘ahs.May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family and Companions.