What is the ruling on someone who cultivates land and it happens that the time of harvest coincides with Ramadan? Is he excused from fasting during Ramadan because of
his work or not? Please bear in mind that the man cannot observe the Sawm (fast) and work at the same time.
The Sawm of Ramadan is one of the pillars of Islam and is unanimously agreed upon as an obligation upon every Mukallaf (person meeting the conditions to be held legally accountable for their actions). Allah says:
So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan i.e. is present at his home), he must observe Saum (fasts) that month, and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Saum (fasts) must be made up] from other days.
You have to pay great attention to the Sawm of Ramadan and not to be indulgent about breaking it without a legitimate excuse. Farmers are their own bosses, and can therefore organize the time they work on their farms. So they can harvest their crops at night when it is cooler or hire people who can manage to harvest crops and fast without facing too much hardship. They could also delay harvesting the crops until after Ramadan, if that is possible. For anyone who fears Allah, Allah will find a way out for them. (Part No. 10; Page No. 232) May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.