Q 2: Making vows for other than Allah is void. However, is it valid, for instance, to vow a sheep for Shaykh
and then give the meat to the poor, claiming that the Shaykh receives the reward and so he blesses whoever made the vow? If not, is it lawful to eat the meat of these vowed sheep? Does this fall under the saying of Allah, (Part No. 1; Page No. 185)
...and that on which Allâh's Name has not been mentioned while slaughtering, (that which has been slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allâh
because the vowed animal is Tahir (purified)? Can that Tahir animal be unlawful because of a void vow?
First of all,
vowing and slaughtering are acts of `Ibadah (worship) that should not be offered to other than Allah (Exalted be He). Whoever vows or slaughters for other than Allah commits Shirk (associating others with Allah in His Divinity or worship). The gravity of the sin increases if someone, in addition to vowing or slaughtering for other than Allah, believes that the dead can benefit or harm, for this is Shirk in lordship as well as Shirk in worship.
vows that are made for other than Allah (Exalted be He) are void. If someone vows lawful food or vows an animal before slaughtering it, the ruling depends on the exact intention of the owner. If they slaughter the animal for the sake of other than Allah, it will be regarded as carrion that is unlawful to be eaten by its owner and anybody else. This prohibition falls under the generality of the aforementioned Ayah.May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.