The Fitnah intended by the Prophet when pointing to the east

Q 2: What is the meaning of the word "Fitnah" which the Prophet (peace be upon him) mentioned in the following Hadith: It is reported that `Abdullah ibn `Umar heard Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) turning his face towards the east and saying: Behold, Fitnah will appear from this side where the horns of Satan will appear. ?

A: The meaning of the word "Fitnah" here is Kufr (disbelief). It is reported in the narration of Muslim, on the authority of Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) that Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: The summit of Fitnah (disbelief) (Part No. 3; Page No. 133) is towards the east. He said, "The words 'The summit of disbelief' mean that the worst form of Kufr (disbelief) will appear in the east."It is also reported that Al-Qady `Iyad said: "It is said, 'the east' refers to Persia, because most disbelief will appear in that land. He refuted this view by saying that the rest of the Hadith explains that they are Ahl Al-Wabar (rural Bedouins). But the people of Persia are not rural Bedouins. It is said, it refers to Najd, the residence of the tribe of Rabi`ah and Mudar, because they are in the east, according to the Prophet's saying in the Hadith narrated by Ibn `Umar when he (peace be upon him) said: O Allah! Bestow Your blessings on our Yemen and our Sham (north)! The people said, "O Messenger of Allah! And also on our Najd." Whereupon, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: There (in Najd) is the place of earthquakes and plague and from there the horns of Satan will come out. And in the other Hadith when he said: O Allah, use Your Force against Mudar. The people of the east from Mudar were disobeying him at that time. He also invoked Allah against Mudar in many Hadiths. Hudhayfah said, ' Mudar does not leave a servant of Allah unless they torture and kill him.` Also, Hudhayfah said to them when they entered to kill `Uthman and occupied his room and house, 'The oppressors of Mudar do not leave a servant believing in Allah but they torture and kill him.' It is reported that this refers to what happened in Iraq in the very beginning of the extreme sedition like the day of the Battle of the Camel, Siffin, and Harura', and the seditions of Banu Umayyah, the emergence of the callers of Banu Al-`Abbas when the earth was shocked in hostility and sedition. All (Part No. 3; Page No. 134) these seditions took place to the east of Najd and Iraq. It is reported in the Hadith of Al-Khawarij: 'A group of people will arise from the east...' The word Kufr is used to mean ingratitude for Allah's blessings. It is also said, this word is used to mean disbelief and that its summit will be the Antichrist. Because the Antichrist will appear in the East." Discussing the Prophet's statement: Where the two horns of Satan emerge, at the residence of the tribes of Rabi`ah and Mudar," Al-Nawawy in his commentary on Muslim book states, "As to the phrase: 'the two horns of Satan' it refers to Satan's two temples. It is also said that it refers to his two groups with which he tempts to delude people. It is said, 'they are Satan's two allies of the unbelievers.' The point is the east will take up more of Satan's temptation and disbelief because in the other Hadith: The summit of Kufr (disbelief) is in the east. This was during the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him) when he said this Hadith. It will happen when the Antichrist emerges in the east. The East will then be the first place for extreme seditions to take place and the rebellion of disbelievers and extremely aggressive and strong Turks."' It is apparent that this Hadith is about the east in general, the far, near, and Middle East. This also applies to the sedition of Musaylimah and the apostates from Rabi`ah, Mudar, and other tribes in the Arabian Peninsula. May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.