Q 2: Does the following Hadith bear evidence on
the dominance of Jinn (creatures created from fire) over Humans?
We visited Abu Sa`id Al-Khudry in his house and while we were waiting for him (to finish his Prayer) we heard something under his bed. We looked towards the sound and found a snake. I jumped up to kill it, but he (Abu Sa`id Al-Khudry) gestured that I should sit down. I sat down and when he finished (the Prayer) he pointed to a room in the house and said: Do you see this room? I said: Yes. He said: There was a young man amongst us who was newly wed. We went with Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) to take part in the Battle of the Trench, this young man used to ask for Allah's Messenger's (peace be upon him) permission to return to his family everyday at midday. One day, he sought permission from him and Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) (after granting him the permission) said to him: Carry your weapons with you for I fear the tribe of Qurayzhah (may harm you). The man took his weapons and came back to find his wife standing between the two doors. He was hit by jealousy and made a dash towards her with a spear in order to stab her. She said: Keep your spear away and enter the house until you see that which has made me come out. He entered and found a big snake coiled on the bed. He darted with the spear and pierced it and then went out, but the snake quivered and attacked him and no one knew which of them died first, the snake or the young man . . .
in his Sahih (authentic) Book of Hadith
'Refer to Mishkah Al-Masabih, (Part No. 1; Page No. 279) chapter on [The lawful and the prohibited to eat]')
The Hadith is Sahih (a Hadith that has been transmitted by people known for their uprightness and exactitude; free from eccentricity and blemish) in terms of its Sanad (chain of narrators) and Matn (text).
Adam was created from clay in human form, then his offspring propagated. Jinn were created from fire then became living beings and were divided into males and females. The Prophet (peace be upon him) was sent to both humans and Jinn, some of them believed and some disbelieved. Humans can harm Jinn with or without knowledge and Jinn can harm humans, knock them down, or kill them just as a human may harm another human. A Jinny (a creature created from fire) may harm another Jinny. Indeed, whoever denies the power of Jinn while unaware of their condition follows that of which they have no knowledge and contradicts the guidance of the Qur'an concerning their power. Allah (Exalted be He) says:
He created man (Adam) from sounding clay like the clay of pottery.
And the jinn: He created from a smokeless flame of fire.
He also says:
And indeed We created man (Adam) out of an extract of clay (water and earth).
Allah addresses them in the same manner He addresses humans in His saying:
Then which of the Blessings of your Lord will you both (jinn and men) deny?
And His saying:
O assembly of jinn and men! If you have power to pass beyond the zones of the heavens and the earth, then pass beyond (them)! But you will never be able to pass them, except with authority (from Allâh)!
Allah subjugated Jinn with their different forms to His Prophet (Part No. 1; Page No. 280) Sulayman (Solomon, peace be upon him). Allah (Exalted be He) says:
So, We subjected to him the wind; it blew gently by his order whithersoever he willed,
And also the Shayâtîn (devils) from the jinn (including) every kind of builder and diver,
And also others bound in fetters.
, He (Exalted be He) says:
...and there were jinn that worked in front of him, by the Leave of his Lord. And whosoever of them turned aside from Our Command, We shall cause him to taste of the torment of the blazing Fire.
He also says:
And of the Shayâtîn (devils from the jinn) were some who dived for him, and did other work besides that
Allah (Exalted be He) says:
And (remember) when We sent towards you (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) a group (three to ten persons) of the jinn, (quietly) listening to the Qur’ân. When they stood in the presence thereof, they said: "Listen in silence!" And when it was finished, they returned to their people, as warners.
They said: "O our people! Verily, we have heard a Book (this Qur’ân) sent down after Mûsâ (Moses), confirming what came before it: it guides to the truth and to the Straight Path (i.e. Islâm).
O our people! Respond (with obedience) to Allâh’s Caller (i.e. Allâh’s Messenger Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم), and believe in him (i.e. believe in that which Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم has brought from Allâh and follow him). He (Allâh) will forgive you of your sins, and will save you from a painful torment (i.e. Hell-fire)
And whosoever does not respond to Allâh’s Caller, he cannot escape on earth, and there will be no Auliyâ’ (lords, helpers, supporters, protectors) for him besides Allâh (from Allâh’s punishment). Those are in manifest error.
He also says:
And on the Day when He will gather them (all) together (and say): "O you assembly of jinn! Many did you mislead of men," and their Auliyâ’ (friends and helpers) amongst men will say: "Our Lord! We benefited one from the other, but now we have reached our appointed term which You did appoint for us." He will say: "The Fire be your dwelling-place, you will dwell therein forever, except as Allâh may will. Certainly your Lord is All-Wise, All-Knowing."
And thus We do make the Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrong-doers) Auliyâ’ (supporters and helpers) of one another (in committing crimes), because of that which they used to earn.
Read also the Ayahs (Qur'anic verses) of (Part No. 1; Page No. 281) Surah Al-Jinn for it tells you all about their form, actions, and the recompense of those who believed and those who disbelieved. There is nothing strange about a Jinny hurting a human or inflicting harm on them just as a human may hurt a Jinny and inflict harm if the Jinny takes the form of an animal such as the one mentioned in the question and the Hadith
on the authority of
Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said:
A strong demon of Jinn came to me yesterday suddenly, so as to spoil my Salah (Prayer), but Allah enabled me to overpower him, and so I caught him and intended to tie him to one of the pillars of the Masjid (mosque) so that all of you might see him, but I remembered the invocation of my brother Solomon:
My Lord! Forgive me, and bestow upon me a kingdom such as shall not belong to any other after me
so I let him go cursed.
Generally, Jinn and humans are either Mu'mins (believers) or Kafirs (disbelievers), good or bad, beneficent or harmful but it is all by Allah's Will as mentioned above.
The Jinn world and forms are screened from humans. It is an area where we know nothing except what is mentioned in the Qur'an or Sunnah (whatever is reported from the Prophet). We should believe in the truth conveyed in the Qur'an and Sunnah with no doubt or denial. Similarly, we should refrain from interfering with what is unknown to us, for affirming or denying things that are unwarranted in the Qur'an or Sunnah is an act of ignorance which Allah (Exalted be He) forbids: (Part No. 1; Page No. 282)
And follow not (O man i.e., say not, or do not or witness not) that of which you have no knowledge. Verily! The hearing, and the sight, and the heart, of each of those one will be questioned (by Allâh).
May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.