does a person who swears by the Qur'an have to make Kaffarah (expiation) if they break their oath? Is it permissible to swear by the Ka`bah or by Allah's Favors?
It is permissible to swear by the Qur'an because it is the Word of Allah, which is one of His Attributes. Swearing by the Qur'an is a valid oath. The person will have to make Kaffarah if they break their oath. It is, however, not permissible to swear by the Ka`bah or by the Favors of Allah (Exalted be He). Swearing an oath will not take effect in such a case. This is based on the Hadith in which the Prophet (peace be upon him) said:
"Anyone who swears by other than Allah is a Kafir (disbeliever) or Mushrik (one who associates others with Allah in His Divinity or worship)."
what is the ruling on someone who observes Sawm (Fast) for three consecutive days as a Kaffarah for an oath despite being able to feed ten Miskins (needy persons)?
Sawm will not expiate for breaking an oath if the person is capable of feeding or clothing ten Miskins or of emancipating a believing slave. Sawm will only expiate for this if the person cannot afford to feed or clothe Miskins or to emancipate a believing slave. Allah (Exalted be He) says:
...for its expiation feed ten Masâkîn (poor persons), on a scale of the average of that with which you feed your own families, or clothe them or manumit a slave. But whosoever cannot afford (that), then he should fast for three days. That is the expiation for the oaths when you have sworn.
(Part No. 23; Page No. 14)
does a person have to feed the Miskins with cooked food or just give them dry food, such as rice and barley, while offering Kaffarah for an oath?
It does not matter whether cooked or raw food is given to the Miskins in expiation for breaking an oath. For example, the person may cook food to be served to ten Miskins or distribute five Sa`s (1 Sa` = 2.172 kg) to them, each receiving half a Sa`.May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.