(Part No. 4; Page No. 229)
The first question of Fatwa no.
1: Allah (Exalted be He) says in Surah Al-Tawbah:
وَأَذَانٌ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ إِلَى النَّاسِ يَوْمَ الْحَجِّ الْأَكْبَرِ أَنَّ اللَّهَ بَرِيءٌ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ وَرَسُولُهُ فَإِنْ تُبْتُمْ فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ [(meanings of which are translated as:) And a declaration from Allâh and His Messenger to mankind on the greatest day (the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah - the 12th month of Islâmic calendar) that Allâh is free from (all) obligations to the Mushrikûn (See V.2:105) and so is His Messenger. So if you (Mushrikûn ) repent, it is better for you].
Kindly provide us with an exegesis for this noble Ayah (Qur’anic verse),
by explaining how Arabic grammarians analyze it, stating their analysis if possible. This is important information for everyone who is not well-versed in Arabic grammar, as I have just started learning it. Please give us your Fatwa, and may Allah reward you.
When Allah (Exalted be He) says (what means):
And a declaration from Allâh and His Messenger
He means that this is a notification and a preface warning to the people:
...on the greatest day (the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah - the 12th month of Islâmic calendar)
refers to the Day of Nahr (Sacrifice, 10th of Dhul-Hijjah, when pilgrims slaughter their sacrificial animals), which is the best, greatest, and most prominent day of Hajj, during which many rituals are performed, such as throwing pebbles at the stone pillar of ‘Aqabah, slaughtering the sacrificial animals, shaving the head, and performing Tawaf Al-Ifadah (final obligatory circumambulation around the Ka‘bah in Hajj), along with other worshipful acts such as Dhikr (Remembrance of Allah), Takbir (saying: "Allahu Akbar [Allah is the Greatest]"), and other acts.When Allah says (what means):
أَنَّ اللَّهَ بَرِيءٌ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ [that Allâh is free from (all) obligations to the Mushrikûn]
He is addressing Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and ordering him to warn the people and notify them that Allah is free from all obligations to Mushriks (one who associates others with Allah in His Divinity or worship), and that the Messenger is also free from any obligation to them. The word "ورسوله" (His Messenger) in the same Ayah is unquestionably in the subjective case (Marfu‘ with Damah) according to the transmitted recitation of all the reciters of Qur’an; it is conjoined with the implied pronoun "He" in the verb "بريء" (free from), that refers to Allah (Exalted be He). (Part No. 4; Page No. 230) This is the Tafsir (explanation/exegesis of the meanings of the Qur'an) given by
Ibn Kathir for the Ayah
as well as many other Mufassirs (exegete of the Qur'an).May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.