Sawm of a kidney patient

Q: I am a kidney patient and I have undergone two surgical operations on my kidney. Doctors advised me to drink no less than two and a half liters of water daily and warned me that Sawm (Fast) and abstaining from drinking water for three consecutive hours endangers my life. Am I to follow their advice, or should I, seeking Allah's Support, observe Sawm despite their warning that I am at risk of developing stones? What should I do? What Kaffarah (expiation) am I liable for if I do not observe Sawm?

A: If your health condition is as mentioned, diagnosed as such by skillful and efficient doctors, you are allowed to refrain from Sawm to protect your health and prevent further complications. If in the future your health improves and you recover your ability to fast, without difficulty, you must make up for those missed days of Sawm. However, if your disease continues and doctors decide that you are incurably susceptible to the risk of developing stones if you do not drink water over short periods, you should feed a needy person for each day that you do not fast. (Part No. 10; Page No. 180) May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.