Leaving the baby in the bassinet or with a brother and the baby dying

Q: First: A mother laid her baby girl to sleep beside her in bed and covered her with a quilt. When she woke up in the morning she discovered that her baby girl was dead. What is the ruling on this mother?Second: A boy around one year old was left by his mother in the back of the house. The mother asked her other son, who is four years old, to watch his brother and keep him from going close to the fire. The older son neglected his younger brother who fell into the fire and died. Must the mother offer any Kaffarah (expiation) for this? Please provide us with your beneficial answer.

A: According to what is mentioned regarding the first question, the concerned mother does not have to offer any Kaffarah for the death of the baby girl because she did not cause the death. This is also due to the fact that the basic principle states that no Kaffarah is due unless there is clear proof to the contrary. Regarding the second question, if the case is exactly as you have mentioned; the mother in question was negligent in leaving the baby boy near the fire to be watched only by a young immature child. Consequently, it is Wajib (obligatory) on her to offer Kaffarah, which is to free a believing bondsman or, if unable to do so, to observe Sawm (Fast) for two successive months, i.e. sixty days. (Part No. 21; Page No. 432) May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.