Q 1: A Muslim man renounced Islam and died in this state, can we declare him to be a disbeliever? What
is the ruling on apostates in Islam?
Is it permissible to ask Allah's forgiveness for them such as to say: O Allah, forgive him?
Whoever renounces Islam is declared to be Kafir (disbeliever). He is requested for three days to repent. If he repents, it is good, otherwise, he is killed. In addition, it is not permissible to ask Allah to forgive him if he dies in this state for (Part No. 3; Page No. 425) Allah (Exalted be He) says:
It is not (proper) for the Prophet and those who believe to ask Allâh’s Forgiveness for the Mushrikûn (polytheists, idolaters, pagans, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allâh), even though they be of kin, after it has become clear to them that they are the dwellers of the Fire (because they died in a state of disbelief).
May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.