Q 1: Allah (Exalted be He) says,
It is not (proper) for the Prophet and those who believe to ask Allâh’s Forgiveness for the Mushrikûn (polytheists, idolaters, pagans, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allâh), even though they be of kin, after it has become clear to them that they are the dwellers of the Fire (because they died in a state of disbelief).
The apparent meaning of this Ayah is that it is not allowed to ask for forgiveness for Mushrikun (who associate others with Allah in His Divinity or worship) even if they are close relatives. Many of us Bedouin Arabs have parents and relatives who are accustomed to slaughtering (animals) beside the grave, seeking to draw close to Allah (Exalted be He) through the occupants of those graves, making vows to offer the meat at their graves, and seeking the help of the occupants of the graves to remove distress and heal disease. There are people who have died in this state, for no one reached them who could teach them about Tawhid (belief in the Oneness of Allah/ monotheism) and the true meaning of Laa ilaaha illa-Allaah (there is no god but Allah), or who could teach them that vows and supplications are acts of worship that are not right unless they are directed to Allah Alone. Is it correct to walk in their funeral procession, to offer funeral prayer over them, to make Du`a' (supplication) and to seek forgiveness for them, to perform Hajj on their behalf and to give charity on their behalf?
If such people die in the state which you describe, it is not permissible to follow their funeral procession, to pray over them, to make Du`a' and seek forgiveness for them, to perform Hajj on their behalf or to give charity on their behalf. This is because the actions mentioned above are actions of Shirk (associating others with Allah in His Divinity or worship), and Allah (Exalted be He) says in the Ayah quoted above,
It is not (proper) for the Prophet and those who believe to ask Allâh’s Forgiveness for the Mushrikûn (polytheists, idolaters, pagans, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allâh), even though they be of kin
(Part No. 9; Page No. 13) Moreover, it was authentically reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said,
I sought Allah's permission to beg forgiveness for my mother, but He did not grant it to me. I sought permission from Him to visit her grave, and He granted me permission.
Such people cannot be excused by saying that no one told them or explained to them that the things they were doing were Shirk, because the evidence on that in the Qur'an are very clear, and there were knowledgeable people among them whom they could have asked about whether what they were doing was Shirk or not. However, they turned away and were content with what they were doing.May Allah grant us success. May Peace and blessings of Allah be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family and Companions!