Whoever dies in a battle in the cause of Allah (Exalted be He) or dies of his wounds is the real martyr. However, many others can also be called martyrs
for it has been recorded by
on the authority of
Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger (peace be upon him) said:
There are five types of martyrs: One who dies in a plague, one who dies of intestinal ailments, one who drowns, one who dies under a collapsed building, and one who dies while fighting in the cause of Allah (Exalted be He).
(Part No. 12; Page No. 19)
Al-Bukhari has singled out martyrs with a special chapter, "Seven types of Martyrdoms in addition to killing"
within which he included other types of martyrs in a Hadith related by
Malik on the authority of
Jabir ibn `Atik, that the Prophet (peace be upon him) visited
`Abdullah ibn Thabit and stated the Hadith,
Whom do you consider to be a martyr among you? They (the Companions) said: "One who is slain in the cause of Allah is a martyr...
The Hadith also includes the saying of the Prophet (peace be upon him):
There are seven types of martyr other than those killed in the cause of Allah.
He included more types than what was mentioned in the Hadith narrated by
Abu Hurayrah. He (peace be upon him) said:
"One who dies in a fire, the one who dies of pleurisy, and a woman who dies during child-birth.”
It is also related by Ashab-ul-Sunan (authors of Hadith compilations classified by jurisprudential themes) and classified as authentic by
from the Hadith of
Sa`id ibn Zayd as Hadith Marfu` (a Hadith narrated from the Prophet with a connected or disconnected chain of narration):
“Whoever dies while defending his own possessions is a martyr; whoever dies defending his own person is a martyr; whoever dies guarding his own faith is a martyr; and whoever dies fighting in order to defend his own family is also a martyr.”
Moreover, it is related by
on the authority of
Suwayd ibn Muqarrin (Part No. 12; Page No. 20) as Hadith Marfu`
"Whoever is killed while defending his usurped right is a martyr.''
In conclusion, the Prophet (peace be upon him) did not mean to confine the meaning of martyrdom.
Ibn Hajar in Fath Al-Bari said: "We have more than twenty traits collected through good chains of transmission." On the other hand, there is no evidence that indicate that the ruling, in the Hadith of the epileptic woman, is limited to this woman only. It is likely to include whoever suffers from epilepsy and is patient and expects a reward from Allah (Exalted be He) until they die. We do not know of any evidence to support regarding them as martyrs.May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.