Buying crops a long time before harvest

Q: There is a person in the Sudan that makes use of Muslim's financial needs and buys the crops from them long before the harvest and for low prices. Then he receives the whole yield at the time of harvest. What is the Shari`ah ruling on this matter?

A: There is no harm if this person buys the harvest from farmers and other people if the crops are liable to Salam sale (sale with advance payment), i.e. The crop can be defined by weight, measure, type, kind, or amount for a definite due date while (Part No. 14; Page No. 89) the price is paid at the time of concluding the sale without specifying the yield of a certain farm. This is the lawful form of Salam sale. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "Those who pay in advance for anything must do so for a specified weight, a specified measure and for a definite time." (Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim) However, it is not permissible to buy certain agricultural products before the fruits are ripe. The Prophet (peace be upon him) forbade selling fruits until they ripe and the grains until they grow. It is related by Muslim in his Sahih book of authentic Hadith on the authority of Ibn `Umar that The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) forbade the selling of date-palms (i.e. their fruits) until they are almost ripe, and ears (of corn or barley) until they become white (i.e., hard) and safe from blight. He forbade both the seller and the buyer (from such sale)." Dates are almost ripe when they get red and yellow and are ready (Part No. 14; Page No. 90) to be eaten. In addition, it is permissible to buy certain crops when the fruits appear to be in a good condition and the grains grow, and there is no harm in that. May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.