What is the ruling on the belief of a person that the Murshid (spiritual guide) gave him a child, or that decrease and increase in sustenance are a result of invoking someone other than Allah?
Whoever believes that children are a gift from someone other than Allah, or that someone else can increase and decrease his sustenance is considered a Mushrik (one who associates others with Allah in worship), whose Shirk is even worse than that of the pre-Islamic
Arabs and other disbelievers during the time of Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic time of ignorance). When the
Arabs were asked during Jahiliyyah who gave them sustenance from the heavens and the earth, brought forth the living from the dead and the dead from the living, they said, “Allah.” They worshipped their false idols only because they claimed that they brought them near to Allah. Allah the Exalted states (what means):
Say (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم): "Who provides for you from the sky and the earth? Or who owns hearing and sight? And who brings out the living from the dead and brings out the dead from the living? And who disposes the affairs?" They will say: "Allâh." Say: "Will you not then be afraid of Allâh’s punishment (for setting up rivals in worship with Allâh)?"
(Part No. 1; Page No. 66) Allah also says (what means):
And those who take Auliyâ’ (protectors, helpers, lords, gods) besides Him (say): “We worship them only that they may bring us near to Allâh.” Verily, Allâh will judge between them concerning that wherein they differ. Truly, Allâh guides not him who is a liar, and a disbeliever.
He also says (what means):
Who is he that can provide for you if He should withhold His provision?
It is authentically established in the Sunnah that giving and withholding are only from Allah.
By way of example,
reported in the Chapter entitled "Dhikr after Salah" in his Sahih that Warrad, the scribe of
Al-Mughirah ibn Shu‘bah, said:
Al-Mughirah ibn Shu‘bah dictated a letter to me for
Mu‘awiyah informing him that the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to recite after each obligatory Salah,
La ilaha illa Allah, wahdahu la shareeka lahu, lahul-mulku wa-lahul-hamdu, wa-huwa ‘ala kulli shai’in qadeer, Allahumma la mani’a lima ‘a'tait wa-la mu’tia lima mana’t, wa-la yanfa’u dhal-jaddu minkal-jadd (There is no god but Allah, Alone with no partner, His is the Sovereignty and His is the praise, and He has power over all things. O Allah! No one can withhold what You give and no one can give what You withhold, and no one’s wealth or might is of any avail to him against You).
However, Allah may grant His servant offspring and increase his sustenance because of his praying to Him and turning to Him alone, as manifest in Surah Ibrahim (14), when Ibrahim (Abraham, peace be upon him) supplicated to Allah and He answered his supplication. It is also mentioned in Surah Maryam, Surah Al-Anbiya’, and others that
Zakariyya supplicated to Allah and He answered his supplication. It is also authentically established that
Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) say,
‘Whoever would like to have his provision increased and his lifespan extended, let him uphold the ties of kinship.’
Al-Bukhari (Part No. 1; Page No. 67) and
in their two Sahih (authentic) books of Hadith. And Allah knows best.May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions!