Is it permissible for a Muslim to call Adhan (call to Prayer) five minutes before its due time
according to the calendar of the Saudi Kingdom, and then after Adhan make Iqamah (call to start the Prayer)? There was a situation in which someone in the Masjid was advising that the time of Salah was not due yet, someone else was already saying the Adhan. Disregarding the advice, the person in charge of the Masjid ordered that the Salah should be started.
The person who alerted them did not join the Salah, thinking that it was being performed ahead of time. What is the ruling regarding this?
Adhan is a means of informing Muslims that the time of Salah is due, and is an act of worship, which like others, is Tawqifiy (bound by a religious text and not amenable to personal opinion) and we do not know of any evidence that indicates (Part No. 6; Page No. 81) the permissibility of calling Adhan before the time of Salah is due except in Fajr (Dawn) Prayer which has a special reason that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) indicated.
The Group of Compilers of Hadith (Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Al-Nasa'y, and Ibn Majah) with the exception of
narrated on the authority of
Ibn Mas`ud that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said,
Do not stop your Suhur (pre-dawn meal before the Fast) upon hearing the Adhan given by
Bilal for he gives Adhan or (he said) calls before dawn so that he alerts those of you who are standing for optional Prayer at night and wakes up those who are asleep.
The religious scholars unanimously agreed upon the invalidity of calling Adhan before the due time except for Fajr (Dawn) Prayer, for what has been previously mentioned. Performing Salah before its due time as in the case of performing Maghrib (Sunset) Prayer before sunset and performing Fajr Prayer before the break of dawn is not supported by proofs from the Qur'an, the Sunnah, or the agreement of scholars among the Sahabah (Companions of the Prophet) (may Allah be pleased with them) and those who have followed them in goodness until this very day. The only exception to this rule is the case of lawfully combining Salahs such as Zhuhr (Noon) and `Asr (Afternoon) Prayers, or Maghrib (Sunset) and `Isha' (Night) prayers. In that case the two prayers are treated as one with regard to those who are entitled to use the concession of combining Salah. It has been authentically reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said,
There should be no obedience to a creature in disobedience to the Creator.
May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.