Q 2: Some people among us have deviant opinions and different creeds. These people revile some of the Sahabah (Companions of the Prophet, peace be upon him), abase them, and claim that some of them were dissolute. They even stay away from acting in accordance with their narrations (of the Hadiths). They also claim that the honorable Sahaby (Companion of the Prophet),
Al-Mughirah ibn Shu`bah
is one of those dissolute Sahabah, I seek refuge in Allah from this. They say, may Allah curse them, that four of the Sahabah had testified that he committed Zina (sexual intercourse outside marriage) in front of
(may Allah be pleased with him). This is some of their worst claims.
The Companions of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) are the best of believers. Allah has praised them in many Ayahs (Qur'anic Verses) that are recited until the Day of Resurrection. These Ayahs include the Saying of Allah (Exalted be He):
And the foremost to embrace Islâm of the Muhâjirûn (those who migrated from Makkah to Al-Madinah) and the Ansâr (the citizens of Al-Madinah who helped and gave aid to the Muhâjirûn ) and also those who followed them exactly (in Faith). Allâh is well-pleased with them as they are well-pleased with Him. He has prepared for them Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise), to dwell therein forever. That is the supreme success.
And: (Part No. 2; Page No. 461)
Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is the Messenger of Allâh. And those who are with him are severe against disbelievers, and merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and falling down prostrate (in prayer), seeking Bounty from Allâh and (His) Good Pleasure. The mark of them (i.e. of their Faith) is on their faces (foreheads) from the traces of prostration (during prayers). This is their description in the Taurât (Torah). But their description in the Injeel (Gospel) is like a (sown) seed which sends forth its shoot, then makes it strong, and becomes thick and it stands straight on its stem, delighting the sowers, that He may enrage the disbelievers with them. Allâh has promised those among them who believe (i.e. all those who follow Islâmic Monotheism, the religion of Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم till the Day of Resurrection) and do righteous good deeds, forgiveness and a mighty reward (i.e. Paradise).
The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) also praised them and bore witness that they are the best of all people when he said:
The best people are those living in my generation, and then those who will follow them, and then those who will follow the latter.
Agreed upon by Al-Bukhari and Muslim. It was also related by
Muslim on the authority of
`Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) that she said:
A person asked Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) saying: Who are the best people? He said: The generation to which I belong, then the second generation (generation subsequent to my generation), then the third generation (generation subsequent to the second generation).
Second: It is impermissible for a Muslim who believes in Allah and in the Day of Resurrection to curse any of them, for the Prophet (peace be upon him) said in the Hadith related by
Al-Bukhari in his Sahih on the authority of
Abu Sa`id (may Allah be pleased with him):
Do not revile my companions, for if one of you were to spend the equivalent of Uhud in gold, it would not amount to a mudd (a weight that equals a handful) of one of them, (Part No. 2; Page No. 462) or even half of it.
It was also related by
Muslim in his Sahih on the authority of
Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:
Do not revile my companions, for by the One in Whose Hand my soul is, if one of you were to spend the equivalent of Uhud in gold, it would not amount to a mudd (a weight that equals a handful) of one of them.
Moreover, it has been reported that
Ibn `Umar (may Allah be pleased with them both) said: "Do not revile the Companions of Muhammad (peace be upon him) for an hour of their sitting (he means with the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him) is better than the deeds of any of you for forty years". In another narration related by
Waki`, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: (...Is better than the deeds of any of you in their whole life).
Therefore, whoever curses any of the Sahabah (may Allah be pleased with them all) of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) will be entitled to a serious punishment according to the consensus of Muslim scholars. However, they (Muslim scholars), disagreed on whether they should be sentenced to death or not.Third: The Sahabah of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) are all upright since Allah has rendered them so, praised them, (Part No. 2; Page No. 463) and recommended them, in addition to His Messenger's recommendation to them, what a great recommendation!
Al-Khatib Al-Baghdady (may Allah be merciful to him) said: Every Hadith whose chain of narrators has been connected to the Prophet (peace be upon him) is not to be put into action except after the confirmation of the uprightness of its narrators, for they should be considered, except for the Sahaby who reported it from the Messenger of Allah because the uprightness of the Sahabah is confirmed and recognized by Allah's Confirmation, and declaration of their purity as well as His Selection to them in the text of the Qur'an. Then he cited some Ayahs and Hadiths indicating their merits. Afterwards, he said: If Allah and His Messenger have not mentioned any of what we have said in their regard, it would suffice that they had practiced Hijrah (a believer's migration to an Islamic land), Jihad (fighting/striving in the cause of Allah), provided support (to the Prophet), exerted money and effort, had their parents and children killed (for the sake of Allah), exchanged advice in religion, and had strong Iman (faith) and Yaqin (certainty) to approve their uprightness and virtuousness, so they are the best of all upright and recommended people and of those who would ever succeed them. It is also narrated on the authority of
Abu Zur`ah (may Allah be merciful to him) that he said: If you see a man slandering any of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), you should know that this man is disbeliever. The Messenger of Allah is true, the Qur'an is also true, and both (facts) were conveyed to us by the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (Part No. 2; Page No. 464) (peace be upon him). However, those (who do such act) want to transgress our witnesses (the Companions) to nullify the Book and the Sunnah. Thus, they are the ones who should be transgressed against and they are the disbelievers.Many scholars had reported the consensus on their uprightness, truth, in addition to the credibility of their narrations, Praise be to Allah, such as,
Ibn Hajar Al-Sakhawy (may Allah be merciful to all of them).Fourth:
Ibn Taymiyyah (may Allah be merciful to him) said in his book Al-`Aqidah Al-Wasitiyyah: "And of the fundamentals of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah is the soundness of their hearts and tongues towards the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), as Allah has described them in His Saying:
And those who came after them say: "Our Lord! Forgive us and our brethren who have preceded us in Faith, and put not in our hearts any hatred against those who have believed. Our Lord! You are indeed full of kindness, Most Merciful.
And to obey the Prophet (peace be upon him) in his saying:
Do not revile my Companions...
They also accept whatever is mentioned in the Qur'an, Sunnah and by consensus with regard to their merits and ranks. He (Ibn Taymiyyah) also added: (Part No. 2; Page No. 465) They (Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah) disavow the approach of
Al-Rawafid (a Shiitic group), who hate the Sahabah and revile them. They also hate the approach of
Al-Nawasib (A deviant Islamic sect slandering `Aly ibn Abu Talib and the family of the Prophet) who harm Ahl-ul-Bayt (members of the Prophet's extended Muslim family) with words or acts.They (Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah) do not comment on what had happened between the Sahabah, because all the stories related with regard to their disadvantages include some fabrication, either by addition, diminution or distortion.As to the authentic narrations, they (the Sahabah) are excused in them, for they were Mujtahidun (Scholars qualified to exercise juristic effort to infer expert legal rulings); some of their acts were correct, and the others were not and their mistakes would be excused. However, Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah do not believe that all the Sahabah are infallible; rather they were subjected to committing sins, except that they had other merits and initiatives that entail forgiving their sins, if they committed any. They would be forgiven much more than those who succeed them, since their good deeds are much more than those of their successors. It is authentically proven that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) witnessed for them to be the best of generations, and that the Mudd donated by any of them is better than the mount of Uhud weighed in gold donated by any of their successors. Moreover, if any of them committed sins, they would have repented of it, replaced them with good deeds, or being forgiven for their precedence, or by the intercession of Muhammad (peace be upon him), (Part No. 2; Page No. 466) for they are the most entitled to it. In addition to this, if any of them was inflicted in the Worldly Life, this would be a Kaffarah (expiation) for their sins. Had this been the case with regard to the certain sins, what would be the case with regard to the things in which they practiced Ijtihad; where if they were right they would have double reward, and if they were not, they would be rewarded as well, and their mistakes would be forgiven. Besides, the size of their sins is incomparable to their merits and virtues such as their Iman in Allah and His Messenger, practicing Jihad (striving in the cause of Allah), offering Hijrah and providing support, having beneficial knowledge and virtuous deeds. Thus, whoever considers their biographies with knowledge and insight and sees what Allah has bestowed upon them of merits will know that they are the best people after the Prophets, and that no one will ever reach their status, for they are the elite of the generations of this Ummah (nation), which is the best of all nations and the most honored by Allah."Fifth: Based on what was previously mentioned, it is the duty of all Muslims to believe in the merits and grace of the Sahabah of the Messenger (peace be upon him) and their superiority over others, to love and supplicate for them, and mention them in a good manner. In addition, Muslims should love them and ward off whoever hates them or mentions them in a bad manner, for this is one of the essentials for sound Iman and Din (the religion of Islam).
Imam Abu Ja`far Al-Tahawy (may Allah be merciful to him) said in clarifying the `Aqidah of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah: "And we love the Sahabah of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and never (Part No. 2; Page No. 467) hate or disavow any of them. On the other hand, we hate whoever hates them, and mentions them badly, for we only mention them in a good manner. Loving them is one of the forms of Iman and Ihsan (the perfection of Faith), while hating them is an act of hypocrisy and oppression."May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.