Is it permissible for a woman to observe voluntary Sawm (Fast) without her husband's permission?
It is not permissible for a woman to observe voluntary Sawm except with her husband's permission. This is based on the following Hadith narrated on the authority of
Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) that Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said:
No woman should observe Sawm while her husband is present except with his permission.
Al-Bukhari in his Sahih [Authentic Book of Hadith], refer to Fath-ul-Bary, vol. 9, p. 293) Also,
Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said:
A woman is not to observe Sawm on a day while her husband is present without his permission except in Ramadan.
Abu Dawud in his Sunan [Hadith compilations classified by jurisprudential themes], refer to `Awn-ul-Ma`bud, vol. 7, p. 128, and
Ibn Majah in his Sunan, vol. 1, p. 56) Based on this, it is not permissible for a woman to observe voluntary Sawm except with her husband's permission, since observing voluntary Sawm is a Sunnah (supererogatory act of worship following the teachings of the Prophet) while fulfilling the husband's rights is Wajib (obligatory), and because Sawm prevents a woman from fulfilling some of her obligatory duties towards her husband.May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.