Q 1: I am a final year student in the Women Teachers Preparatory Institute.
I made an oath to observe Sawm (Fasting) for a month in the following year if I passed my exams.
Sadly, I have not fulfilled my oath yet, because I have not made up for the days that I did not fast in Ramadan, which were of course with a lawful excuse. I am 21 years old and cannot observe Sawm, because I am physically weak and a primary school teacher. In addition to this, our town has not yet been supplied with electricity, except for commercial electricity that comes between 9:00 am and 4:00 pm. I hope that Your Eminence will let me have a reply as soon as possible.
First: It is obligatory on you to make Kaffarah (expiation) for breaking the oath you made to fast for a month within the year following your exam success, as the year in which you said that you would fast has passed and you did not fast. The Kaffarah is to feed ten needy people 1.5 kg of food, clothe ten needy people, or free a believing slave. If you cannot do this, you have to observe Sawm for three days.Second: It is obligatory on you to make up for the days you did not fast in Ramadan. If you delay making up for them until the next Ramadan, without an excuse, then along with making up the missed fasts, you have to (Part No. 23; Page No. 325) feed a poor person for each day that you did not fast.May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.