Q: Did the Salaf (the righteous Predecessors) classify Allah's Attributes into Hissiyyah (concrete) and Ma`nawiyyah (abstract) or Dhatiyyah (related to the Self) and Khabariyyah (informing about the Self) Attributes, or are there any other classifications? Moreover, there are some Divine Attributes, such as Wujud (Existence), Baqa' (Eternity) and Qidam (Preexistence); is it permissible to attribute them to Allah knowing that there is no Naql (primary Islamic source texts: Qur'an and Hadith) concerning these Attributes, but that they were established through examination of the texts of the Qur'an and Sunnah or exercise of reasoning? Is it permissible to derive Names of Allah from His Acts like Al-Satir (the one who veils misdeeds) from the verb 'satar' (to veil, cover, conceal, etc.) and the One Who makes women pregnant from the intent of the Ayah (Qur'anic Verse),
And no female conceives or gives birth but with His Knowledge.
And so on. If deriving Names of Allah from His Acts is permissible, what is the proof?
Allah's Attributes are classified into Dhatiyyah (attributes of the Self) and Fi`liyyah (attributes of action); the Dhatiyyah Attributes are like the Face, the Two Hands and Highness, and Fi`liyyah Attributes are like Creation, Sustenance, Establishment over the Throne, Speaking, etc.As for Wujud and Qidam, they are not among Allah's Attributes for there is no proof on them. However, there is no blame for saying that Allah (Exalted be He) is existent and that He is eternal since the scope of describing Allah is wider than that of specifying the Divine Names and Attributes. With regard to Al-Baqa' (Eternity), it was mentioned in Ayahs such as, (Part No. 2; Page No. 405)
And the Face of your Lord full of Majesty and Honour will remain forever.
He is the First (nothing is before Him) and the Last (nothing is after Him)
The Prophet (peace be upon him) explained the First and the Last in the former Ayah with his saying,
You are the First and there is none before You. And You are the Last and there is none after You.
Allah's Names are Tawqifiyyah (bound by a religious text and not amenable to personal opinion). Therefore, it is not permissible to give a name to Allah, and we should stick to the Names that He designated for Himself. In addition, one cannot derive a name of Allah from His Acts but His Attributes can be derived from His Names, such as the Attribute of Mercy that can be derived from His Names Al-Rahman (the Most Beneficent) and Al-Rahim (the Most Merciful) and so on.May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.