The Hadith: 'Neither the testimony of a disloyal person, whether a man or a woman, nor that of Dhu Ghimr is accepted'
Q: Your Eminence, I hope you would advise about the authenticity of the Hadith which was narrated on the authority of
(may Allah be pleased with her) that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said:
Neither the testimony of a disloyal person, whether a man or a woman, nor that of Dhu Ghimr is accepted.
What is the meaning of Dhu Ghimr? We resorted to you because Allah (Exalted be He) says:
So ask the people of the Scripture, if you do not know.
This Hadith was related through different chains of transmission, one of which was narrated on the authority of
`Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) from the Prophet (peace be upon him) with the following words:
The testimony of a disloyal person, whether man or woman, or Dhu Ghimr against their brother is not accepted nor that of a person whose allegiance to their parents or ex-master is suspected.
Al-Tirmidhy related this Hadith in his book "Jami`", vol. 2, p. 48
and commented: "Its is not Sahih (authentic) (Part No. 3; Page No. 234) in terms of its Sanad (chain of narrators)." The Hadith was also related by
Al-Bayhaqy in his book "Al-Sunan Al-Kubra", vol. 10, p. 155 and he commented: "It is Da`if (weak) and cannot be taken as evidence."
Al-Daraqutny (529) related the Hadith and commented that it was Da`if and cannot be taken as evidence.Another narration was related on the authority of
`Amr ibn Shu`ayb from his father from his grandfather from the Prophet (peace be upon him) with the following wording:
The testimony of a disloyal man or woman and Dhu Ghimr against their brother is not accepted.
It was related by
Imam Ahmad in his "Musnad (Hadith compilation)", vol. 2, pp. 204, 225-226;
Abu Dawud in his "Sunan (Hadith compilations classified by jurisprudential themes)", no. 3600, 3601;
Al-Bayhaqy in "Al-Sunan Al-Kubra", vol. 10, p. 200; and
Al-Daraqutny (528). Al-Hafizh
ibn Hajar said in "Al-Talkhis," vol. 4, p. 198, "Its Sanad is strong. Thus, the Hadith from this chain of transmission is Sahih and can be taken as evidence."The meaning of Dhu Ghimr in the Hadith was mentioned in "Al-Fath Al-Rabbany," vol. 5, p.220, as follows: The saying
...And Dhu Ghimr
means the one who has hard feelings and enmity.
Al-Khattaby said: "It is the person who has manifest enmity against the accused."The disloyalty mentioned in the Hadith does not only mean the breach of trust, but it gives a general meaning referring to every person who abandons what Allah (Exalted be He) and His Prophet (peace be upon him) have commanded people to do, or commits what Allah (Exalted be He) and His Messenger (peace be upon him) have prohibited. In this case, they are regarded as untrustworthy and their testimony shall not be accepted because of Allah's Saying:
O you who believe! Betray not Allâh and His Messenger, nor betray knowingly your Amânât (things entrusted to you, and all the duties which Allâh has ordained for you).
(Part No. 3; Page No. 235) May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.