Q 3: Is it right to get evidence on an opinion that differentiates between
swearing by concrete things and abstract meanings
according to what the Prophet (peace be upon him) stated,
He who swears by Amanah (trust) is not one of us
? What is the grade of authenticity of this Hadith? What is the ruling on the writer of this article? And what is the ruling on those who propagate it?A man swears by Allah falsely, but swears by anything other than Allah, Glorified be He, truthfully. Could his conduct be a criterion to judge him as swearing by other than Allah out of glorification?
Swearing by persons, like saying 'I swear by the Prophet' or 'I swear by so-and-so' and swearing by abstract meanings, like saying 'I swear by Amanah (trust)' or 'I swear by my honor' are the same. They are both included in the general form of swearing by anything or anyone other than Allah. The Hadith mentioned in the question
Anyone who swears by Amanah (trust) is not one of us.
Confirms the prohibition of swearing by abstract meanings such as Amanah (trust) and the like. It also indicates the prohibition of swearing by persons, as it is indicated by the general meaning of the Hadith. The prohibition of swearing by persons is proved in what was narrated from the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) when he stated,
Do not swear by your fathers!
(Agreed upon by Al-Bukhari and Muslim). There is also the Hadith that reads,
Anyone who swears by anyone but Allah is a disbeliever or a Mushrik (one who associates others with Allah in His Divinity or worship).
Abu Dawud and
Al-Tirmidhy with an authentic chain of narrators. Also, the Prophet (peace be upon him) stated,
Anyone who swears by anything other than Allah is committing an act of Shirk.
Narrated by Imam
Ahmad with an authentic chain of narration from the Hadith narrated by
`Umar (may Allah be pleased with him). (Part No. 1; Page No. 133) Anyone who calls to differentiation between swearing by Amanah (trust) and swearing by persons in order to permit swearing by persons, is grossly mistaken and his claim is to be rejected. The Hadith narrated from the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) concerning the prohibition of swearing by parents and the like, and the prohibition of swearing by anything other than Allah in general can refute this opinion.Concerning those who swear by Allah falsely, their fault is the false oath and glorifying Allah to prove what is not true. Needless to say, lying is one of the major sins.Swearing by anything or anyone other than Allah, even when it is a true oath, is considered minor Shirk (associating other partners with Allah that is not tantamount to taking the Muslim out of Islam). In essence, Shirk is more grievous than major sins because swearing by anything other than Allah may reach the level of major Shirk, if it is intended to glorify what is sworn by the same way Allah is glorified.Therefore,
Ibn Mas`ud (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "To swear by Allah falsely is more tolerable to me than swearing by anything or anyone other than Allah truthfully."May Allah grant us Success! May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.