Reproaching the Jews and Christians for denying each other

Part (2) of the question: Allah says in the Qur'an that the Jews and the Christians read the Divine Books (Surah Al-Baqarah, 2:113)?


A: The question refers to the following Ayah (Qur'anic verse) in which Allah (Exalted be He) says: The Jews said that the Christians follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion); and the Christians said that the Jews follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion); though they both recite the Scripture. Like unto their word, said (the pagans) who know not. Allâh will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection about that wherein they have been differing. In this Ayah, Allah (Exalted be He) reprimands the two groups, the Jews and the Christians, due to their stubborn and aggressive refusal to believe in the last Book that had been revealed. Allah reprimands the Jews for disbelieving in the Message conveyed by `Isa (Jesus, peace be upon him) and the laws that he brought. They did that even though they recite their Scripture, the Tawrah (Torah), which also includes the covenant Allah took from them to believe in `Isa and the laws that he would bring from Allah. Allah also reprimands the Christians for disbelieving in Musa (Moses, peace be upon him), even though they recite their Scripture, the Injil (Gospel), which confirmed the Tawrah that was revealed to Musa, except for few matters that Allah ordered `Isa to make lawful for them. (Part No. 3; Page No. 341) However, this does not mean acknowledging the distortions made to the Tawrah and the Injil or the texts hidden by the Jews and the Christians from the Books that were revealed to their prophets. This is supported by the fact that Allah mentions in other Ayahs the corruption that each did to the texts of the Scriptures revealed to their prophets, while arguing to prove their false claims using Mutashabihat (dependent Qur'anic verses, open to more than one interpretation or whose meaning is known only to Allah) to cause confusion and misinterpretation. All that they took out of their Books, distorted, and concealed should be brought together, added to that the fact that they believed in a part of the Scripture and rejected the rest. Both Books, the Tawrah and the Injil, were revealed by Allah, as was the Qur'an, and each of them confirmed the others. All prophets heralded the coming of those next and they all believed in each other. It is therefore obligatory to believe in all the prophets and in all that was revealed to them by Allah (Exalted be He). Anyone who believes in some of them and disbelieves in others is a disbeliever in all of them. This is supported by the following Ayahs: Verily, those who disbelieve in Allâh and His Messengers and wish to make distinction between Allâh and His Messengers (by believing in Allâh and disbelieving in His Messengers) saying, "We believe in some but reject others," and wish to adopt a way in between. They are in truth disbelievers. And We have prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating torment. And those who believe in Allâh and His Messengers and make no distinction between any of them (Messengers), We shall give them their rewards; and Allâh is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. These Ayahs are general and apply to the Jews, the Christians, and others. Allah (Exalted be He) says: O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Now has come to you Our Messenger (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) explaining to you much of that which you used to hide from the Scripture and pass over (i.e. leaving out without explaining) much. Indeed, there has come to you from Allâh a light (Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) and a plain Book (this Qur’ân). Wherewith Allâh guides all those who seek His Good Pleasure to ways of peace, and He brings them out of darkness by His Will unto light and guides them to the Straight Way (Islâmic Monotheism). (Part No. 3; Page No. 342) Up to His Saying: And (remember) when Mûsâ (Moses) said to his people These Ayahs are also general and refer to the Jews and the Christians. Allah (Exalted be He) also says: Fight against those who (1) believe not in Allâh, (2) nor in the Last Day, (3) nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allâh and His Messenger Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) (4) and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e. Islâm) among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued. Up to His Saying: O you who believe! Verily, there are many of the (Jewish) rabbis and the (Christian) monks These Ayahs once again are general and apply to the Jews and the Christians also. Allah (Exalted be He) again says: Do you (faithful believers) covet that they will believe in your religion inspite of the fact that a party of them (Jewish rabbis) used to hear the Word of Allâh [the Taurât (Torah)], then they used to change it knowingly after they understood it? These Ayahs and many others, before and after them, expose the scandals that were committed by the Jews. Allah (Exalted be He) also says about them: They (the Jews, Quraish pagans, idolaters) did not estimate Allâh with an estimation due to Him when they said: "Nothing did Allâh send down to any human being (by revelation)." Say (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم): "Who then sent down the Book which Mûsâ (Moses) brought, a light and a guidance to mankind which you (the Jews) have made into (separate) papersheets, disclosing (some of it) and concealing much. There are other Ayahs with similar meanings that were revealed about (Part No. 3; Page No. 343)  the Christians that show, for example, that they concealed the news heralding the Message of Muhammad (peace be upon him). Allah (Exalted be He) says in His Repudiation of the Christians: Surely, in disbelief are they who say that Allâh is the Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary). Up to His Saying: Those among the Children of Israel who disbelieved were cursed And Allah (Exalted be He) says about the Jews and the Christians: And the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) differed not until after there came to them clear evidence (i.e. Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم and whatever was revealed to him). Up to His Saying: Verily, those who disbelieve After clarifying this matter, it is not permissible to claim that the Qur'an praises the Jews or the Christians who have not believed in it after its revelation. Similarly, we cannot claim that the Qur'an praises the distorted Tawrah or the distorted Injil. The distortions made to them are many, e.g. `Isa as a son of and a god with Allah, the false claim of `Isa's crucifixion or his murder by the Jews, and their concealment of the Prophethood and Mission of Muhammad. If these examples do not indicate distortion, concealment, interpolation, or omissions that have been made to their texts, what else can we call what those two groups did to the Books revealed to their prophets?

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