Q 1: What is the ruling
when waking up at Fajr (Dawn) in a state of Janabah (major ritual impurity related to sexual discharge)?
Should one fully wash the body or what should be done? Bearing in mind that we live in a Bedouin community where modern bathrooms are not available.
Anyone who wakes up at dawn in a state of Janabah must bathe with water to remove the ritual impurity in order to perform Fajr Prayer. The absence of modern toilets is not an excuse for not performing Ghusl. One must take cover away from people and perform Ghusl unless the weather is cold and there is no means to heat the water, or there is fear of becoming ill if one performs Ghusl with cold water. (Part No. 4; Page No. 136) Only then should one resort to Tayammum (dry ablution with clean earth), patting the hands against dusty ground and rubbing the face and the back of the palms, then perform Salah. This is in accordance with the Statement of Allah:
If you are in a state of Janâba (i.e. after a sexual discharge), purify yourselves (bathe your whole body). But if you are ill or on a journey, or any of you comes after answering the call of nature, or you have been in contact with women (i.e. sexual intercourse), and you find no water, then perform Tayammum with clean earth and rub therewith your faces and hands.
The account of `Amr ibn Al-`As (may Allah be pleased with him) also lends support to this. He had a wet dream while traveling and feared using water to perform Wudu', so he performed Tayammum and led the other Sahabah (Companions of the Prophet) in Salah. Upon his return, he related his case to the Prophet (peace be upon him) who did not object. It is authentically narrated on the authority of
`Amr ibn Al-`As that when he was sent to the Battle of Dhat Al-Salasil, he said:
I experienced a wet dream on a cold night during the campaign of Dhat Al-Salasil. I was afraid that if I performed Ghusl I would die. I, therefore, performed Tayammum and led my companions in Fajr Prayer. They mentioned this to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and he said, 'O `Amr, did you lead your companions in Salah while you were Junub (in a state of post-sexual ritual impurity)?' I told him what had kept me from performing Ghusl. I said, 'I remembered the Words of Allah:
And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allâh is Most Merciful to you.
Accordingly, I performed Tayammum and led them in Salah.' The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) smiled and did not say anything.
Abu Dawud, and
Al-Daraqutny) (Part No. 4; Page No. 137) May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.