Q 3 and 4:
What is meant by Kufr (disbelief) concerning the Attributes of Allah and is there a difference between a hard-line scholar and an allegorical interpreter in this matter?
Kufr concerning the Attributes of Allah (Exalted be He) means either denying the established Attributes after being informed of the evidence or disbelieving in the Attributes by distorting their meanings without having excusable grounds for doubt.
If someone persists in contradicting the truth, after it has been clarified and evidence given, they are a Kafir (disbeliever) who has no excuse to be so. However, if they contradict it and they have excusable grounds, they will be mistaken but excused, and they will be rewarded for their Ijtihad (juristic effort to infer expert legal rulings).May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.