Involuntary manslaughter of a Muslim, Dhimmi or Musta'man

Q: While I was driving my car at average speed, I hit a man who suddenly stood in front of my car. The man died twelve hours after the accident and I gave Diyah (blood money) to his family. I asked about observing Sawm (fast) as Kaffarah (expiation), and some scholars said that it is not obligatory while others made it obligatory. Please, advise me in this regard.

A: It is obligatory on a person who killed, by mistake, a Muslim, a Dhimmy (protected non-Muslim living under Islamic rule) or Musta'man (one who is given protection by Muslim authorities), to pay the Diyah and make expiation, which is freeing one believing slave. If he does not find one, he must fast for two successive months. (Part No. 21; Page No. 345) Allah (Exalted be He) says: It is not for a believer to kill a believer except (that it be) by mistake; and whosoever kills a believer by mistake, (it is ordained that) he must set free a believing slave and a compensation (blood-money, i.e. Diya) be given to the deceased’s family, unless they remit it. To His saying: And whoso finds this (the penance of freeing a slave) beyond his means, he must fast for two consecutive months in order to seek repentance from Allâh. And Allâh is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise. May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.