Ihram from Jeddah for other than its inhabitants

Q: Firstly:I noticed that many of my country people who have performed Hajj or ‘Umrah (lesser pilgrimage) wore the clothing of Ihram (ritual state for Hajj or ‘Umrah), i.e. Entered Ihram once they arrived at the Hujjaj city. Some of them even entered Ihram in hotels or the homes of relatives and friends in Jeddah. I cannot read Arabic and, therefore, I hope you will provide me with some Ayahs (Qur’anic verses) along with their English translation clarifying or indicating that their Miqat (site for entering the ceremonial state for Hajj or ‘Umrah) is not Jeddah. Secondly:Those I mentioned base their assuming Ihram in this manner on the following reasons:A- They are adherents of Al-Shafi`y school of Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), which differs from all other schools of Fiqh in that it understands the Miqat requirements differently and somehow strictly. B- Since the Hajj city now in Jeddah is more than two Marhalahs (a distance of about one kilometer) away from Makkah, they consider the Hujjaj city a Miqat. C- When told that they have passed their Miqat on their way to Jeddah, they argued that they no longer use the old road to Yalamlam, as they travel by air. D- Those who consider the city of Jeddah their Miqat support their claim by the fact they had stayed in the homes of their relatives and friends for a period of two or three days before heading to Makkah. Thus, according to them, their short stay in Jeddah must have given them the status of (Part No. 11; Page No. 138) residents or visitors of Jeddah, although they have visas for Hajj or ‘Umrah. According to them also, the issue of Miqat or intention to perform Hajj or ‘Umrah only takes effect when they utter such an intention and act upon it, which may take place after wearing the clothing of Ihram in Jeddah. Thirdly: Some pilgrims head for Al-Madinah once they arrive at the Kingdom, without having entered Ihram, and then wear the clothing of Ihram in Al-Madinah before moving to Makkah. Please inform us whether this is permissible.Fourthly:I would appreciate it if you could provide me with the necessary answers along with their supporting evidence quoted from the Qur’an so that I may deliver them to the Islamic institutions in Singapore. I hope that you, moreover, highlight misinterpretations if there are any.I am looking forward to your prompt reply. Best regards.

A: Firstly, the purified Shari‘ah (Islamic law) has defined all the Miqats. The Prophet (peace be upon him) is authentically reported to have specified the relevant Miqat for each destination. It is recorded in Sahih Al-Bukhari, on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him and his father), that he said: The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) defined the Miqat of the people of Al-Madinah as Dhul-Hulayfah; that of the people of the Levant (the region covering Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine) as Al-Juhfah; that of the people of Najd as Qarn Al-Manazil; and that of the people of Yemen as Yalamlam. He (peace be upon him) said, ‘These Miqats are for the people of these very places and also for the non-indigenous people who come through these places with the intention of performing Hajj and ‘Umrah; and whoever is living within these boundaries can enter Ihram from where they form the intention, and the same applies to the people of Makkah, who may enter Ihram from Makkah.’ In relation to the rites of Hajj, such places are considered Tawqifiy (bound by a religious text and not amenable to personal opinion) matters. (Part No. 11; Page No. 139) Therefore, those who pass by them while intending to perform Hajj or ‘Umrah must assume Ihram there. Pilgrims who pass by them without assuming Ihram have to return to them, before assuming Ihram from another Miqat, to assume Ihram from that Miqat. If they do not return, they must offer Damm (sacrificial animal offered as an atonement) to compensate for the rite they missed. Secondly, the distance between the Haram (the Sacred Sanctuary of Makkah) and the place of assuming Ihram is not taken into consideration. In fact, places for assuming Ihram, as pointed out in the first paragraph, are specified by Shari‘ah. Thirdly, pilgrims who do not pass by their Miqat when coming for Hajj and ‘Umrah on account of their traveling by air must assume Ihram once they come in line with the Miqat specified for their country while in the air, because coming in line with the place counts as if one is actually in the place itself. Fourthly, intention for performing Hajj or ‘Umrah is not merely expressing it verbally, but it is an inner determination and intention within the heart. Therefore, one who sets out intending to perform Hajj or ‘Umrah must assume Ihram from the Miqat specified by Shari‘ah. Passing beyond the Miqat without assuming Ihram requires Damm to compensate for the missed rite. Fifthly, if one embarking on Hajj or ‘Umrah passes beyond the Miqat of their country without assuming Ihram and does so from the Miqat of another country, such a pilgrim must slaughter a sacrificial animal for passing by the Miqat of their country without assuming Ihram. As for your fellow countrymen who assume Ihram from the Miqat of Al-Madinah, Dhul-Hulayfah, it is permissible. (Part No. 11; Page No. 140) May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family and Companions.