Q 1: What is the ruling on
a Bedouin coming from the desert area to a city for work and does not go to the Masjid (Mosques) or attend Jumu`ah (Friday) Prayer?
If he intends to stay more than four days, it is not permissible for him to benefit from the concessions of traveling i.e., shortening and combining prayers. However, if he intends to stay for four days or less, or he travels to fulfill (Part No. 8; Page No. 114) a need after which he will return home and does not specify the period of his stay, it is permissible for him to benefit from the concessions of traveling. However, he should offer Salah in congregation, not individually. If you mean that he does not pray at all, he commits a major sin. According to the soundest of the two opinions of the scholars, if he admits the obligation of Salah but does not pray, he is a Kafir (disbeliever). The Prophet (peace be upon him) said,
Verily, between a servant and Shirk and Kufr (disbelief) is the negligence of prayer
Muslim in his Sahih (authentic) Book.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) also said,
The covenant that distinguishes between us and them (the hypocrites) is Salah. Anyone who abandons it is a Kafir
Imam Ahmad and the Compilers of the Four Sunan (Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Al-Tirmidhy, and Al-Nasa'y), with an authentic Isnad (chain of narrators).
However, if he denies the obligation, then he is definitely a disbeliever, according to the majority of scholars for he belies Allah (Glorified be He) and His Messenger (peace be upon him).May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.