I went with a friend of mine to a desert area inhabited by some nomads on a mission of Da`wah (calling to Islam). We settled there for more than a month. We know that Jumu`ah (Friday) Prayer is not Wajib (obligatory) upon them; however, we doubted its validity if we offered it. We offered the Jumu`ah Prayer with them for a month. Our goal was to teach them how to offer it, and allow them to benefit from the Khutbah (sermon). We did so considering it permissible, rather than Wajib. My question is: Is the Jumu`ah Prayer we offered with them valid, or is it not permissible under such conditions? If it is not valid, should we make it up as Zhuhr (Noon) Prayer instead of the Jumu`ah Prayer we offered? Please clarify this for us, may Allah bless you (Part No. 8; Page No. 226) and reward you well!
Residency (i.e. not travelling) is a condition for the validity of Jumu`ah Prayer, according to the majority of scholars, except for a minor divergent view which is not considered. Therefore, you should repeat it in the form of Zhuhr Prayer. You should also inform the group you offered it with to repeat it as Zhuhr Prayer. Furthermore, you should repent and seek Allah's Forgiveness for setting out an action without having definite knowledge about it.May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.