Q 1: What is
the ruling on not performing Salah (prayer) in congregation, without a valid excuse?
It is impermissible to leave congregational Salah without a valid excuse. This is based on the Hadith authentically reported on the authority of
Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:
By Him in Whose Hand my soul is, I sometimes thought of giving orders for firewood to be collected, then for announcing the Adhan (call for Salah). I would appoint an Imam to lead the people in Salah, and then go to the houses of those who do not come to perform Salah in congregation, and set their houses on fire. By Him in whose Hands my soul is, if any of them had known that he would get a bone covered with good meat, or two (small) pieces of meat in between two ribs, he would have turned up for the `Isha' (Night) Salah.
it is related by
in his Sahih that:
A blind man came to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and said: O Messenger of Allah! I have no one to guide me to the Masjid (mosque). He, therefore, asked Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) permission to offer Salah in his house. He (the Prophet) called him and said: Do you hear the call to Salah? He said: Yes. He (the Prophet then) said: Respond to it.
(Part No. 7; Page No. 289) May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.