Jumu`ah Prayer on the day of `Eid

Q: Some people from the village of Fayd came to us and told us that a professor in the Islamic University of Al-Madinah visited them in their village. One Friday, he gave the Friday Khutbah (sermon) and gave them some Fatwas (legal opinion issued by a qualified Muslim scholar). For example, he said that the Jumu`ah (Friday) and Zhuhr (Noon) Prayers are not obligatory on anyone who offers Salat-ul-`Eid (the Festival Prayer) on Friday, be it an Imam (the one who leads congregational Prayer) or someone led in prayer. He also told them that it is obligatory for women to offer Jumu`ah Prayer even if in their homes. Moreover, he stressed the obligation of a desert-dweller offering Jumu`ah Prayer with his wife, even if the man and his wife pray in congregation with no one else. The people of this village asked us to refer the matter to you to know your opinion in this regard which constitutes the absolute truth. Please tell us the correct opinion.

A: Firstly: If the day of `Eid is a Friday, it is not obligatory for anyone who offers Salat-ul-`Eid to offer the Jumu`ah Prayer, with the exception of the Imam. It is never not obligatory on him unless no one attends the Jumu`ah Prayer with him.This opinion is supported by Al-Sha`by, Al-Nakh`y and Al-Awza`y. Furthermore, this is the Madh-hab (School of Jurisprudence) adopted by `Umar, `Uthman, `Aly, Sa`id, Ibn `Umar, Ibn `Abbas, Ibn Al-Zubayr and all the scholars who agree with them. The basic rule is derived from what is related from Iyas ibn Abu Ramlah Al-Shamy who said, "I was present when Mu`awiyah asked Zayd ibn Arqam, 'Have you witnessed two `Eids (`Eid and Jumu`ah) that came on the same day during the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him)?' He said, 'Yes.' So Mu`awiyah asked, 'What did he do?' He said, 'He offered Salat-ul-`Eid and granted concession in offering the Jumu`ah Prayer, saying: Anyone who wishes to pray it may pray it.'" (Part No. 8; Page No. 180)  (Related by Abu Dawud and Imam Ahmad). Imam Ahmad narrated that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "Anyone who wishes to pray the Jumu`ah Prayer may do so." It is also related on the authority of Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, "Two `Eids (`Eid and Friday) have come on this day. If anyone wishes, (offering the `Eid Prayer) is sufficient for him for offering the Jumu`ah prayer. But we will offer the Jumu`ah Prayer." (Related by Ibn Majah). In addition, anyone who is not obligated to offer the Jumu`ah Prayer must pray Zhuhr. Secondly: Jumu`ah Prayer is obligatory only on men and we do not know of any evidence deeming it permissible for women in their homes. It is true that when a woman offers the Jumu`ah Prayer with the Imam, it will be sufficient for her but the Prayer is not valid with the Imam and only one woman. Ibn Qudamah said, "There is no disagreement that Jumu`ah Prayer is not obligatory on women." Ibn Al-Mundhir said, "All the scholars we take knowledge from have agreed that no Jumu`ah Prayer is obligatory on women." Moreover, women are not required to attend men's gatherings and that is why congregational prayer is not obligatory on them. (Part No. 8; Page No. 181)  Thirdly: Regarding the opinion that Jumu`ah Prayer is obligatory on desert-dwellers, there is no origin for it in the blessed Shari`ah (Islamic law). There were many desert-dwellers during the lifetime of the Prophet (peace be upon him) all around Makkah, Al-Madinah and other parts of the Peninsula, but it was not confirmed that the Prophet (peace be upon him) ordered any of them to offer Jumu`ah Prayer. Instead, they offered Zhuhr Prayer, since movement and travel in search for pasture and water was their nature. Allah, out of His Mercy, does not make Jumu`ah Prayer obligatory on them. Desert-dwellers are similar to travelers who are not obligated to offer Jumu`ah. The Prophet (peace be upon him) traveled various times and it had never been reported that he established Jumu`ah Prayer on any of his journeys. It is confirmed that the Prophet (peace be upon him) offered Zhuhr Prayer and not Jumu`ah on the Day of the Farewell Hajj. This was on the Day of `Arafah in front of a large number of Muslims. This proves that offering Jumu`ah Prayer is not obligatory on travelers and the like such as desert-dwellers.May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.