how can I make Kaffarah (expiation) for an unfulfilled oath?
Is it permissible to give it in the form of uncooked food to a family of ten or five persons? For example, would offering two Muds (a dry measure of half bushel, 543 grams) and a half of wheat to a ten-person family suffice, or must I give the wheat to each of the ten persons separately?
Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) talks about the Kaffarah in the Qur'an when He says:
...for its expiation feed ten Masâkîn (poor persons), on a scale of the average of that with which you feed your own families, or clothe them or manumit a slave. But whosoever cannot afford (that), then he should fast for three days. That is the expiation for the oaths when you have sworn. And protect your oaths (i.e. do not swear much). Thus Allâh make clear to you His Ayât (proofs, evidence, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) that you may be grateful.
If you gather ten poor people and offer them lunch or dinner, or give each one of them half a Sa` (1 Sa`=3 kg. Approx.) of the usual local staple, such as rice, wheat or the like, this is sufficient. (Part No. 23; Page No. 11) The most important thing is making sure that the ten persons, who are fed or given the staple food collectively or individually, deserve Kaffarah and receive it safely.May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.