Q 1-2: What is the difference between Qabd (placing the right hand over the left when standing) and Sadl (letting them hang down by the sides)? Is there a Hadith or more indicating that the Prophet (peace be upon him) or any of his Companions performed Salah in a state of Sadl? A father kicked his son out of the house, because he (the father) saw his son offering Salah clasping his hands over each other. The father threatened the son that if he did not perform Salah letting his hands hang down by his sides, he would kick him out. How should the son deal with his father?
Clasping the hands in Salah is to place the right hand over the left hand,
and Sadl in Salah is to let them hang down by the sides. It is proven that the Prophet (peace be upon him) placed his right hand over his left during Salah, when standing to recite Qur’an, and when standing after rising from Ruku` (bowing). This is
according to what is narrated by
Muslim on the authority of
Wa'il ibn Hujr (may Allah be pleased with him) that he
saw the Prophet (peace be upon him) raising his hands and saying Takbir (saying: "Allahu Akbar [Allah is the Greatest]") when he started to offer Salah. Then, he wrapped his cloak around himself and placed his right hand on his left. When he wanted to bow, he brought out his hands, then raised them and said Takbir, then bowed. When he said “Sami`a Allahu liman hamidah (Allah hears the one who praises Him)”, he raised his hands, and when he prostrated, he prostrated between his hands.
According to another narration related by
Abu Dawud, Then, he placed his right hand (Part No. 6; Page No. 366) over his left hand, wrist, and forearm.
Abu Hazim reported on the authority of
Sahl ibn Sa`d Al-Sa`idy that he said,
The people were ordered to place their right hand over their left forearm in Salah.
Abu Hazim said, "I know that he attributed it i.e. the report, to the Prophet (peace be upon him)". Related by
Al-Bukhari. There is no reported Hadith to prove that the Prophet (peace be upon him) let his arms hang by his sides when standing during Salah.As for the father kicking out his son for his adhering to the Sunnah, this is utterly wrong. The son should behave kindly with his father even if he throws him out and causes him harm. However, he should not obey the father in the disagreement of the Sunnah. Allah (Exalted be He) says,
But if they (both) strive against you to make you join in worship with Me others that of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not; but behave with them in the world kindly, and follow the path of him who turns to Me in repentance and in obedience.
May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.